A lot of the jewelry in this age was hand wrought, but more machine manufactured jewelry infiltrated the market as the years went on. Quality marks were scarce since there was no distinct standard for stamping gold.
In the 1830s and 1840s, women wore attire that covered most of their bodies. Likewise, earrings and necklaces were scarce and rarely worn. Large brooches were trend and adorned necklace lines. In the 1850s, hair was up-swept and parted down the center, and earrings made a comeback.
Image from wikimedia commons, public domain.
Some of the most popular stones used during this period were: diamonds, coral, seed pearls, garnets, pink topaz, and turquoise. Metal was usually yellow/rose gold and silver.